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Arrays of InP-based Avalanche Photodiodes for Photon Counting

By: Verghese, S.; Tyrrell, B.M.; Duerr, E.K.; McIntosh, K.A.; Chapman, D.C.; Vineis, C.J.; Smith, G.M.; Funk, J.E.; Jensen, K.E.; Hopman, P.I.; Shaver, D.C.; Aull, B.F.; Aversa, J.C.; Frechette, J.P.; Glettler, J.B.; Zong Long Liau; Mahan, J.M.; Mahoney, L.J.; Molvar, K.M.; ODonnell, F.J.; Oakley, D.C.; Ouellette, E.J.; Renzi, M.J.; Donnelly, J.P.;

2007 / IEEE


This item was taken from the IEEE Periodical ' Arrays of InP-based Avalanche Photodiodes for Photon Counting ' Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes (APDs) with InGaAsP absorber regions have been fabricated and characterized in the Geiger mode for photon-counting applications. Measurements of APDs with InGaAsP absorbers optimized for 1.06 mum wavelength show dark count rates (DCRs) <20 kHz for room-temperature operation with photon detection efficiency (PDE) up to 50% and a reset or dead time of 1s. APDs with InGaAs absorbers optimized for 1.55 mum wavelength and 240 K temperature have DCRs <20 kHz, PDE up to 45%, and a reset time of ~6 mus. Arrays for both wavelengths have been fabricated and packaged with GaP microlenses (of 100 and 50 mum pitch) and CMOS readout integrated circuits (ROICs). Comparisons are made between ROICs that operate in the framed-readout mode as well as those that operate in continuous-readout mode.