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Dipole model explaining high-k/metal gate field effect transistor threshold voltage tuning
By: P. D. Kirsch; P. Sivasubramani; J. Huang; C. D. Young; M. A. Quevedo-Lopez; H. C. Wen; H. Alshareef; K. Choi; C. S. Park; K. Freeman; M. M. Hussain; G. Bersuker; H. R. Harris; P. Majhi; R. Choi; P. Lysaght; B. H. Lee; H.-H. Tseng; R. Jammy; T. S. Böscke; D. J. Lichtenwalner; J. S. Jur; A. I. Kingon;
An interface dipole model explaining threshold voltage (Vt) tuning in HfSiON gated n-channel field effect transistors (nFETs) is proposed. Vt tuning depends on rare earth (RE) type and diffusion in SiSiOxHfSiONREOx/metal gated nFETs as follows: Sr<Er<Sc+Er<La<Sc<none. This Vt ordering is very similar to the trends in dopant electronegativity (EN) (dipole charge transfer) and ionic radius (r) (dipole separation) expected for a interfacial dipole mechanism. The resulting Vt dependence on RE dopant allows distinction between a dipole model (dependent on EN and r) and an oxygen vacancy model (dependent on valence).
Field Effect Transistors